Design and Study of Transdermal Drug Delivery System in Humans

Merugu Rajashekar*

Merugu Rajashekar, Vijay College of Pharmacy, Nizamabad, Telangana

Corresponding Author:
Merugu Rajashekar
Vijay College of Pharmacy
Nizamabad, Telangana, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: November 06, 2021; Accepted: November 20, 2021; Published: November 27, 2021

Citation: Rajashekar M (2021) Design and Study of Transdermal Drug Delivery System in Humans. J Drug Abuse. Vol.7 No.10:62

 
Visit for more related articles at Journal of Drug Abuse

Abstract

Use of transdermal patches will evade several problems related to oral drug delivery, like first-pass viscus metabolism, catalyst digestion attack, drug reaction and degradation in acidic media, drug fluctuations, and epithelial duct irritation. This text reviews varied transcutaneous patches offered within the market, types, structural elements, chemical compound role, and therefore the needed assessment tools. Though transdermal patches have medical applications for smoking halt, pain relief, pathology, birth prevention, ill, angina, and internal organ disorders, advances in formulation development square measure in progress to form transcutaneous patches capable of delivering tougher medicine. Transdermal patches will be tailored and developed in keeping with the chemical science properties of active and inactive elements, and relevance for long-run use. Therefore, variety of chemical approaches and physical techniques for skin patch development square measure underneath investigation.

Introduction

The skin is the largest organ in the human body by mass, with an area of between 1.5 and 2.0 m 2 in adults. Drugs have been applied to the skin to treat superficial disorders, for the transdermal administration of therapeutics to manage systemic ailments and as cosmetics, dating back to the oldest existing medical records of man. For instance, the use of salves, ointments, potions and even patches, consisting of plant, animal or mineral extracts, was already popular in ancient Egypt and in Babylonian medicine (around 3000 BC). However, the routine use of transdermal delivery systems only became a common practice in the latter third of the 20th century when delivery technology was developed to enable precise and reproducible administration through the skin for systemic effects [1].

The skin is that the largest organ in the human body by mass, with a part of between 1.5 and 2.0 m 2 in adults. Drugs are applied to the skin to treat superficial disorders, for the transdermal administration of medical specialty to manage general ailments and as cosmetics, qualitative analysis back to the oldest existing medical records of man. As an example, the utilization of salves, ointments, potions and even patches, consisting of plant, animal or mineral extracts, was already fashionable in ancient Egypt and in Babylonian medication (around 3000 BC). However, the routine use of transdermal delivery systems solely became a typical observe within the latter third of the twentieth century once delivery technology was developed to change precise and duplicatable administration through the skin for general effects [2].

The goal of this review is to detail the made history of topical and transdermal delivery that has evolved over thousands of years, focusing notably on the evolution and current use of transdermal patches. The potential efficacy and suitableness of this technology for general medical care is generally determined by drug blood level–time profiles, which may be compared to or expected from p.o. or channel administration. These drug concentrations within the blood area unit, in turn, outlined by the number of drug free into the body from the delivery system and also the application space. transdermic delivery is additionally accustomed manufacture clinical effects, like anaesthesia and anti inflammatory activity, deep inside or below the skin. In distinction, topical delivery seeks to treat superficial, though now and then terribly serious, skin issues through a comparatively native action [2].

Advantages

• Reduce the peak plasma levels of drug this leading to decrease side effect

• Reduce the fluctuation in plasma levels of drugs

• Avoid 1st pass metabolism of drug

• It is a painless treatment

• Enhancement of patient compliance

• Reduction of dosing frequency

Disadvantages

• Drugs having terribly low or high partition constant fail to achieve circulation

• Patients having higher mass fail to penetrate the stratum

• High melting of drug thanks to low solubility of each water and fat

Types of TDDS

1. Reservoir system

2. Matrix system

3. Microresevior system

The reservoir transdermal system encompasses a separate drug layer. The drug layer may be a liquid compartment containing a drug resolution or suspension separated by the adhesive layer. Drug is also within the sort of suspension, gel or resolution. These drugs are distributed on the solid compound matrix shows in (Figure 1) [3].

Figure 1: Reservoir System.

Matrix system

Matrix tablets are the type of controlled drug delivery systems, which release the drug in continuous manner. In a matrix system, the drug substance is homogenously mixed into the rate controlling material as crystalline, amorphous or in rare cases molecular dispersion shows in (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Matrix system.

The matrix system classified into two types of systems:

• Drug adhesive system: The drug reservoir is made by the dispersion of drug to associate degree adhesive polymer; then, it spread on the medicated adhesive polymer or melt on backing layer.

• Matrix dispersion system: The drugs are homogeneously spread on the lipophilic or hydrophilic polymer matrix. The drugs having polymer is fitted on a specific base plate. From a drug rubber backing layer, it self it unfold to create a strip of adhesive rim rather than applying the adhesive or part of drug reservoir.

Microresevior system

This system is the combination of matrix dispersion and reservoir. First drug is dissolved in an aqueous solution of water-soluble polymer, then it is dispersed in lipophilic polymers to form microscopic spheres of drug reservoir shows in (Figure 3) [4].

Figure 3:Microresevior system.

Various Methods for Preparation TDDS

Asymmetric TPX membrane method: An example patch may be fabricated for this a heat sealable polyester film (type 1009, 3 m) with a concave of 1cm diameter are used as the backing membrane. Drug sample is distributed into the concave membrane, coated by a TPX asymmetric membrane, and sealed by an adhesive.

Circular teflon mould method: Solutions containing polymers in varied ratios are utilized in an organic solvent. Calculated quantity of drug is dissolved in half the amount of same organic solvent. Enhancers in numeruos concentrations are dissolved within the other half of the organic solvent then additional. Di- N-butylphthalate is additional as a plasticizer into drug chemical compound resolution. The total contents are to be stirred for 12 hrs then poured into a circular Teflon mould. The moulds are to be placed on a leveled surface and coated with inverted funnel to control solvent vaporization in a very streamline flow hood model with an air speed of 0.5 m/s. The solvent is allowed to evaporate for 24 hrs. The dried films are to be hold on for an additional 24 hrs at 25 ± 0.5°C in a desiccators containing silica gel before evaluation to eliminate aging effects. The type films are to be evaluated among one week of their preparation.

Mercury substrate method: In this method drug is dissolved in polymer solution along with plasticizer. The above solution is to be stirred for 10- 15 minutes to produce a homogenous dispersion and poured in to a leveled mercury surface, covered with inverted funnel to control solvent evaporation [5,6].

The below Table 1 and 2 is explaining about different polymers used in the preparation of transdermal patches.

Ideal Properties of Drug Candidate For Transdermal Drug Delivery

 

Parameter

 

Properties

 

Dose

 

Should be low

 

Half-life in hr

 

10 or less

 

Molecular weight

 

<400

 

Partition coefficient

 

Log P ( octanol-water) between –1.0 and 4

 

Skin permeability coefficient

 

>0.5 x10-3 cm/hr

 

Skin reaction

 

Non irritating and non sensitizer

 

Oral bioavailability

 

Low

 

Therapeutic index

 

Low

 

Table 1 : Ideal Properties of Drug Candidate For Transdermal Drug Delivery.


Types of polymers used in TDDS
Types

 

Polymers

 

Matrix formers

 

Poly ethylene glycol
Ethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone
Hydroxy methyl cellulose

 

Rate controlling

 

Silicon rubber
Polyurethane

 

Pressure sensitive

 

Silicon

 

Adhesives

 

Polyisobutylene
Polyacrylates Compounded

 

Thermoplastic hot melt pressure sensitive

 

Ethylene vinyl acetate co-polymer
Paraffin wax
Low density polypropylene Styrene-butadiene co-polymer Ethylene-ethacrylate co-polymer Uncompounded
Polyesters Polyamides Polyurethanes

 

Backing layer

 

Polyurethane
PVC
PE
EVA

 

PVC: Polyvenylchloride, PE: Polyethelene, EVA: Ethylenevinyl acetate

 

Table 2: Explaining about different polymers used in the preparation of transdermal patches.

Conclusion

TDDS is a more convenient way to administer drugs to the human body. Patients can easily handle this form of medicine delivery. It delivers a long-lasting relief through the skin. Adhesion to the skin and to patches is a critical component in drug delivery. It ensures a continuous blood flow and a predefined rate of drug release during drug delivery. To penetrate the lipoid barrier and drive the drug molecule into systemic circulation, enhancing procedures such as iontophoresis with low voltage and electrophoresis with high voltage are used.

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